In

`meatPL()`

the case of cross-section data (i.e., all elements of`order.by`

being equal) is handled consistently even if`aggregate = TRUE`

(reported by Christof Schoetz).Fix

`bread()`

method for`survreg()`

objects in case the latter already used a “robust” sandwich variance. In that case`$naive.var`

rather than`$var`

has to be used for the bread (reported by Daniel Klinenberg).Improve warnings in

`vcovHC()`

for hat values numerically equal to 1. (Suggested by Sanford Weisberg and John Fox.)

Added jackknife estimator in all

`vcovBS()`

methods (suggested by Joe Ritter). This is of particular practical interest in linear regression models where the (clustered) jackknife and the (clustered) HC3 (or CV3, without cluster adjustment) estimator coincide. In nonlinear models (including non-Gaussian GLMs) the jackknife and the HC3 estimator do not coincide but the jackknife might still be a useful alternative when the HC3 cannot be computed.Added a new convenience interface

`vcovJK()`

for the jackknife covariance whose default method simply calls`vcovBS(..., type = "jackknife")`

(also suggested by Joe Ritter, for more details see the previous item).Added fractional-random-weight bootstrap, also known as Bayesian bootstrap, in all

`vcovBS()`

methods (suggested by Noah Greifer and Grant McDermott). This is an alternative to the classical xy bootstrap which has the computational advantage that all observations are always part of the bootstrap samples with positive weights drawn from a Dirichlet distribution. As weights can become close to zero but no observations are excluded completely, this can stabilize the computation of models that are not well-defined on all subsets.Support weights, offsets, and different fitting methods in

`lm`

and`glm`

objects in the respective`vcovBS()`

methods (reported by Noah Greifer).More verbose error messages in

`bwAndrews()`

and`bwNeweyWest()`

when bandwidth cannot be computed, e.g., due to singular regressor variables (suggested by Andrei V. Kostyrka).Fix

`bread()`

method for`coxph()`

objects in case the latter already used a “robust” sandwich variance. In that case`$naive.var`

rather than`$var`

has to be used for the bread (reported by Alec Todd).Fix

`plm::plm(..., index = ...)`

calls which incorrectly used`indexes = ...`

(as in`plm.data()`

, reported by Kevin Tappe).

Added new argument

`aggregate = TRUE`

to`meatPL()`

which is thus inherited by`vcovPL()`

. By default, this still yields the Driscoll & Kraay (1998) covariance matrix. When setting`aggregate = FALSE`

the cross-sectional and cross-serial correlation is set to zero, yielding the “pure” panel Newey-West covariance matrix.Bug fix in

`vcovCL(..., type = "HC2")`

for`glm`

objects or`lm`

objects with weights. The code had erroneously assumed that the hat matrices were all symmetric (as in the`lm`

case without weights). This is corrected now. (Detected and reported by Bixi Zhang.)Issue a warning in

`vcovHC()`

for HC2/HC3/HC4/HC4m/HC5 if any of the hat values are numerically equal to 1. This leads to numerically unstable covariances, in the most extreme case`NaN`

because the associated residuals are equal to 0 and divided by 0. (Suggested by Ding Peng and John Fox.)Speed improvement in

`vcovBS.lm()`

: For`"xy"`

bootstrap,`.lm.fit()`

rather than`lm.fit()`

is used which is somewhat more efficient in some situations (suggested by Grant McDermott). For`"residual"`

and wild bootstrap, the bootstrap by default still samples coefficients via QR decomposition in each iteration (`qrjoint = FALSE`

) but may alternatively sample the dependent variable and then apply the QR decomposition jointly only once (`qrjoint = TRUE`

). If the sample size (and the number of coefficients) is large, then`qrjoint = TRUE`

may be significantly faster while requiring much more memory (proposed by Alexander Fischer).Enable passing score matrix (as computed by

`estfun()`

) directly to`bwAndrews()`

and`bwNeweyWest()`

. If this is used, the score matrix should either have a column`(Intercept)`

or the`weights`

argument should be set appropriately to identify the column pertaining to the intercept (if any).The vignettes have been tweaked so that they still “run” without technical errors when suggested packages (listed in the VignetteDepends) are not available. This is achieved by defining replacement functions that do not fail but lead to partially non-sensical output. A warning is added in the vignettes if any of the replacements is used.

Extended the “Getting started” page with information on how to use

*sandwich*in combination with the*modelsummary*package (Arel-Bundock) based on*broom*infrastructure (Robinson, Hayes, Couch). (Based on ideas from Grant McDermott.) https://sandwich.R-Forge.R-project.org/articles/sandwich.htmlCatch

`NA`

observations in`cluster`

and/or`order.by`

indexes for`vcovCL()`

,`vcovBS()`

,`vcovPL()`

, and`vcovPC()`

. Such missing observations cannot be handled in the covariance extractor functions but need to be addressed prior to fitting the model object, either by omitting these observations or by imputing the missing values. (Raised by Alexander Fischer on StackOverflow https://stackoverflow.com/questions/64849935/clustered-standard-errors-and-missing-values.)In

`vcovHC()`

if there are`estfun()`

rows that are all zero and`type = "const"`

, then the working residuals for`lm`

and`glm`

objects are obtained via`residuals()`

rather than`estfun()`

. (Prompted by an issue raised by Alex Torgovitsky.)

Release of version 3.0-0 accompanying the publication of the paper “Various Versatile Variances: An Object-Oriented Implementation of Clustered Covariances in R.” together with Susanne Koell and Nathaniel Graham in the

*Journal of Statistcal Software*at https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v095.i01. The paper is also provided as a vignette in the package as`vignette("sandwich-CL", package = "sandwich")`

.Improved or clarified notation in Equations 6, 9, 21, and 22 (based on feedback from Bettina Gruen).

The documentation of the HC1 bias correction for clustered covariances in

`vignette("sandwich-CL", package = "sandwich")`

has been corrected (Equation 15). While both the code in`vcovCL()`

and the corresponding documentation`?vcovCL`

always correctly used (n-1)/(n-k), the vignette had incorrectly stated it as n/(n-k). (Reported by Yves Croissant.)The package is also accompanied by a

`pkgdown`

website on R-Forge now:

https://sandwich.R-Forge.R-project.org/

This essentially uses the previous content of the package (documentation, vignettes, NEWS) and just formatting was enhanced. But a few new features were also added:- A “Get started” vignette for the
`pkgdown`

page (but not shipped in the package) providing an introduction to the package and listing all variance-covariance functions provided with links to further details. - R/Markdown overview vignettes for the
`pkgdown`

page (but also not shipped in the package) linking the`Sweave`

-based PDF vignettes so that they are easily accessible online. - A
`README`

with very brief overview for the`pkgdown`

title page. - A nice logo, kindly provided by Reto Stauffer.

- A “Get started” vignette for the
All kernel weights functions in

`kweights()`

are made symmetric around zero now (suggested by Christoph Hanck). The quadratic spectral kernal is approximated by`exp(-c * x^2)`

rather than`1`

for very small`x`

.In case the

`Formula`

namespace is loaded, warnings are suppressed now for processing formula specifications like`cluster = ~ id`

in`expand.model.frame()`

. Otherwise warnings may occur with the`|`

separator in multi-part formulas with factors. (Reported by David Hugh-Jones.)The

`bread()`

method for`mlm`

objects has been improved to also handle*weighted*`mlm`

objects. (Suggested by James Pustejovsky.)

In various

`vcov*()`

functions assuring that the variance-covariance matrix is positive-definite (via`fix = TRUE`

) erroneously dropped the dimnames. Now these are properly preserved. (Reported by Joe Ritter.)Added

`suppressWarnings(RNGversion("3.5.0"))`

in those places where`set.seed()`

was used to assure exactly reproducible results from R 3.6.0 onwards.

Enhanced

`vignette("sandwich-CL", package = "sandwich")`

by better describing the background of clustered covariances and being more precise in the mathematical notation. Documentation for the new features (see below, e.g., the formula`cluster`

specification and the`vcovBS()`

methods) has been added.In

`vcovCL()`

,`vcovPL()`

,`vcovPC()`

, and`vcovBS()`

, the`cluster`

argument (and potentially also`order.by`

) can be specified by a formula - provided that`expand.model.frame(x, cluster)`

works for the model object`x`

.The

`cluster`

and/or`order.by`

are processed accordingly if observations were dropped in the`NA`

processing of the model object`x`

(provided`x$na.action`

is available).New dedicated

`vcovBS()`

method for`lm`

objects that (a) provides many more bootstrapping techniques applicable to linear models (e.g., residual-based or wild bootstrap), (b) computes the bootstrap coefficients more efficiently with`lm.fit()`

or`qr.coef()`

rather than`update()`

.New dedicated

`vcovBS()`

method for`glm`

objects that uses`"xy"`

bootstrap like the default method but uses`glm.fit()`

instead of`update()`

and hence is slightly faster.All

`vcovBS()`

methods (default, glm, and lm) facilitate parallel bootstrapping by changing the`applyfun`

from the default`lapply()`

. By setting`cores`

either`parallel::parLapply()`

(on Windows) or`parallel::mclapply()`

(otherwise) are used.Default handling of missing parameter estimates in

`vcovBS()`

changed from`"everything"`

to`"pairwise.complete.obs"`

and allow modification of`cov(..., use = ...)`

. This is relevant if not all parameters can be re-estimated on the bootstrap samples, e.g., for dummy variables of relatively rare events.Fix of a bug in

`vcovHC.mlm()`

(reported by James Pustejovsky). The off-diagonal values of the`vcovHC()`

were computed without preserving the sign of the underlying residuals. This issue did not affect the diagonal because the underlying cross product amounts to squaring all values - but it does matter for the off-diagonal. Also,`type = "const"`

was disabled in this scenario and`vcov(...)`

is simply used instead of`vcovHC(..., type = "const")`

.Bug fix in

`vcovCL()`

/`meatCL()`

for multi-way clustering (reported by Brian Tsay). If patterns of levels in one clustering variable also occured in another clustering variable, their interactions were sometimes not computed correctly.In

`vcovCL()`

for multi-way clustering without cluster adjustment, all cluster adjustment factors are omitted entirely. In previous versions they were scaled with (Gmin - 1)/Gmin, where Gmin is the minimal number of clusters across clustering dimensions.`meatHC()`

and`meatHAC()`

now pass their`...`

argument to`estfun()`

, just as`meatCL()`

,`meatPL()`

, and`meatPC()`

do as well.

Various flavors of clustered sandwich estimators in

`vcovCL()`

, panel sandwich estimators in`vcovPL()`

, and panel-corrected estimators a la Beck & Katz in`vcovPC()`

. The new`vignette("sandwich-CL", package = "sandwich")`

introduces all functions and illustrates their use and properties.The new function

`vcovBS()`

provides a basic (clustered) bootstrap covariance matrix estimate, using case-based resampling.

In

`meatHAC()`

,`bwAndrews()`

, and`bwNeweyWest()`

it is now assured that the`estfun()`

is transformed to a plain matrix. Otherwise for time series regression with irregular`zoo`

data, the bandwidth estimation might have failed.In

`meatHC()`

it is now assured that the residuals are zero in observations where all regressors and all estimating functions are zero.

Now the default methods of

`vcovHC()`

and`vcovHAC()`

are also correctly registered as S3 methods in the`NAMESPACE`

.Corrected errors in Equation 3 of

`vignette("sandwich", package = "sandwich")`

. The equation incorrectly listed the error terms “u” instead of the observations “y” on the right-hand side (pointed out by Karl-Kuno Kunze).

`sandwich()`

,`vcovHC()`

, and`vcovHAC()`

did not work when models were fitted with`na.action = na.exclude`

because the`estfun()`

then (correctly) preserved the`NA`

s. This is now avoided and all functions handle the`na.exclude`

case like the`na.omit`

case. (Thanks to John Fox for spotting the problem and suggesting the solution.)

- The
`estfun()`

methods for`survreg`

and`coxph`

objects incorrectly returned the unweighted estimating functions in case the objects were fitted with weights. Now the weights are properly extracted and used.

- Updated
`Depends`

/`Imports`

: Package`zoo`

is only in`Imports`

now.

Added

`estfun()`

and`bread()`

methods for ordered response models from`MASS::polr()`

and`ordinal::clm()`

.Added output of examples and vignettes as

`.Rout.save`

for`R CMD check`

.

Added convenience function

`lrvar()`

to compute the long-run variance of the mean of a time series: a simple wrapper for`kernHAC()`

and`NeweyWest()`

applied to`lm(x ~ 1)`

.`lm`

/`mlm`

/`glm`

models with aliased parameters were not handled correctly (leading to errors in`sandwich()`

/`vcovHC()`

etc.), fixed now.An improved error message is issued if prewhitening in

`vcovHAC()`

cannot work due to collinearity in the estimating functions.

- Fixed a bug in
`bwNeweyWest()`

for`mlm`

objects that only have an intercept.

- HC4m and HC5 estimators, as suggested by Cribari-Neto and coauthors,
have been added to
`vcovHC()`

and related functions.

- Bug fix in
`estfun()`

method for`survreg`

objects.

`estfun()`

methods for`hurdle`

/`zeroinfl`

objects can now handle multiple offset vectors (if any).

- new
`vcovHC()`

method for`mlm`

objects. This simply combines the “meat” for each individual regression and combines the result.

- New
`bread()`

method for`mlm`

objects.

- Updates in
`estfun()`

methods for`hurdle`

/`zeroinfl`

objects.

- Documentation enhancements for new Rd parser.

Added/enhanced

`bread()`

and`estfun()`

methods for`rlm`

and`mlogit`

objects (from`MASS`

and`mlogit`

, respectively).Made

`vcovHC()`

and`vcovHAC()`

generic with previous function definitions as default methods.Updated vignettes (in particular using the more convenient

`tobit()`

interface from the`AER`

package).

Added

`bread()`

and`estfun()`

methods for`hurdle`

/`zeroinfl`

objects as computed by`hurdle()`

/`zeroinfl()`

in package`pscl`

.Fixed

`bread()`

and`estfun()`

methods for negative binomial`glm`

objects: Now`dispersion = 1`

is used.

`bread()`

method for`lm`

objects now calls`summary.lm()`

explicitely (rather than the generic) so that it also works with`aov`

objects.

Added new

`vcovOPG()`

function for computing the outer product of gradients estimator (works for maximum likelihood`estfun()`

methods only).Scaled

`estfun()`

and`bread()`

method for`glm`

objects by`dispersion`

estimate. Hence, this corresponds to maximum likelihood and not deviance methods.

- Minor fix to
`bwAndrews()`

so that it can be easily used in models for multivariate means.

A paper based on the

`"sandwich-OOP"`

vignette was accepted for publication in volume 16(9) of*Journal of Statistical Software*at https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v016.i09.A

`NAMESPACE`

was added for the package.

The vignette

`"sandwich-OOP"`

has been revised, extended and released as a technical report.Several

`estfun()`

methods and some of the`meat*()`

functions have been enhanced and made more consistent.Thanks to Henric Nilsson and Giovanni Millo for feedback and testing.

`estfun()`

methods now use directly the`model.matrix()`

method instead of the`terms()`

and`model.frame()`

methods.

`sandwich`

is made object-oriented, so that various types of sandwich estimators can be computed not only for`lm`

models, but also`glm`

,`survreg`

, etc. To achieve object orientation various changes have been made: a`sandwich()`

function is provided which needs a`bread`

and a`meat`

matrix. For the`bread`

, a generic`bread()`

function is provided, for the`meat`

, there are`meat()`

,`meatHC()`

and`meatHAC()`

. All rely on the existence of a`estfun()`

method.`vcovHC()`

and`vcovHAC()`

have been restructured to use`sandwich()`

together with`meatHC()`

and`meatHAC()`

, respectively.A new

`vignette("sandwich-OOP", package = "sandwich")`

has been added, explaining the new object-orientation features.Various methods to

`bread()`

and`estfun()`

have been added, particularly for`survreg`

and`coxph`

.

Added

`CITATION`

file, see`citation("sandwich")`

.Small documentation improvements.

- Release of version 1.0-0 accompanying the publication in the
*Journal of Statistcal Software*at https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v011.i10. The paper is also provided as a vignette in the package as`vignette("sandwich", package = "sandwich")`

.

Added bandwidth selection a la Newey & West (1994) in

`bwNeweyWest()`

.`NeweyWest()`

is a new convenience function for`vcovHAC()`

with`bwNeweyWest()`

.Added

`estfun()`

methods for`rlm`

and`coxph`

.Argument

`omega`

can also be a function in`vcovHC()`

.Added data sets from Greene (1993):

`Investment`

and`PublicSchools`

.

Improvements in

`vcovHC()`

and`vcovHAC()`

. Argument`order.by`

can now be a`formula`

and`ar.method`

can be modified (rather than being hard-coded`"ols"`

which is still the default).Thanks to Hiroyuki Kawakatsu for feedback and testing.

- Improvements in
`vcovHC()`

: The new default is now HC3 and support was added for HC4.

First CRAN release of the

`sandwich`

package for robust covariance matrix estimators. Provides heteroscedasticity-consistent (HC) and hetereoscedasticity- and autocorrelation-consistent (HAC) covariance matrix estimators. Based on prior work by Thomas Lumley in his`weave`

package.Thanks to Christian Kleiber for support, feedback, and testing.