Introduction

The goal of RSelenium is to make it easy to connect to a Selenium Server/ Remote Selenium Server from within R. RSelenium provides R bindings for the Selenium Webdriver API. Selenium is a project focused on automating web browsers. RSelenium allows you to carry out unit testing and regression testing on your webapps and webpages across a range of browser/OS combinations. This allows us to integrate from within R testing and manipulation of popular projects such as shiny, sauceLabs.

This vignette is divided into six main sections:

Each section will be an introduction to a major idea in Selenium, and point to more detailed explanation in other vignettes.

Connecting to a Selenium Server.

What is a Selenium Server?

Selenium Server is a standalone java program which allows you to run HTML test suites in a range of different browsers, plus extra options like reporting. You may, or may not, need to run a Selenium Server, depending on how you intend to use Selenium-WebDriver (RSelenium).

Do I need to run a Selenium Server?

If you intend to drive a browser on the same machine that RSelenium is running on then you will need to have Selenium Server running on that machine.

How do I get the Selenium Server stand-alone binary?

You can download the latest Selenium Server binary manually it is currently found here. Look for selenium-server-standalone-x.xx.x.jar.

How do I run the Selenium Server?

The recommended way to run a Selenium Server is by running a Docker container. There is a seperate vignette which covers the using RSelenium with Docker see vignette("RSelenium-docker", package = "RSelenium").

Alternatively you can run the binary manually. Open a console in your OS and navigate to where the binary is located and run:

java -jar selenium-server-standalone-x.xx.x.jar

By default the Selenium Server listens for connections on port 4444.

Note for Mac OSX: The default port 4444 is sometimes used by other programs such as kerberos. In our examples we use port 4445 in respect of this and for cdonsistency with the Docker vignette.

How do I connect to a running server?

RSelenium has a main reference class named remoteDriver. To connect to a server you need to instantiate a new remoteDriver with appropriate options.

# Run a server for example using Docker
# docker run -d -p 4445:4444 selenium/standalone-firefox:2.53.1
# Use a debug image with a VNC viewer if you wish to view the browser
# docker run -d -p 5901:5900 -p 127.0.0.1:4445:4444 --link http-server selenium/standalone-firefox-debug:2.53.1
# See Docker vignette for more detail or run a Selenium Server manually.

require(RSelenium)
remDr <- remoteDriver(remoteServerAddr = "localhost" 
                      , port = 4445L
                      , browserName = "firefox"
                      )

Note for Windows: If you are using Docker toolbox your remote server address will not be localhost. You need to use the ip address of the VM that is running docker for example

$ docker-machine ip
192.168.99.100

See the Docker vignette for further details. The newer Docker for windows however should be accessible on the localhost.

It would have been sufficient to call remDr <- remoteDriver(port = 4445L) but the options where explicitly listed to show how one may connect to an arbitrary ip/port/browser etc. More detail maybe found on the sauceLabs vignette. To connect to the server use the open method.

remDr$open()

RSelenium should now have a connection to the Selenium Server. You can query the status of the remote Server using the status method.

> remDr$getStatus()
$build
$build$version
[1] "2.53.1"

$build$revision
[1] "a36b8b1"

$build$time
[1] "2016-06-30 17:37:03"


$os
$os$name
[1] "Linux"

$os$arch
[1] "amd64"

$os$version
[1] "4.4.0-47-generic"


$java
$java$version
[1] "1.8.0_91"

Accessing elements in the DOM.

The DOM stands for the Document Object Model. It is a cross-platform and language-independent convention for representing and interacting with objects in HTML, XHTML and XML documents. Interacting with the DOM will be very important for us with Selenium and the webDriver provides a number of methods in which to do this. A basic html page is

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h1>My First Heading</h1>

<p>My first paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

The query box on the front page of http://www.google.com has html code <input id=..... name="q" ...</input> associated with it. The full html associated with the input tag is:

<input spellcheck="false" dir="ltr" style="border: medium none; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; height: auto; width: 100%; background: transparent url(&quot;data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAID/AMDAwAAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw%3D%3D&quot;) repeat scroll 0% 0%; position: absolute; z-index: 6; left: 0px; outline: medium none;" aria-autocomplete="both" role="combobox" aria-haspopup="false" class="gsfi" id="lst-ib" maxlength="2048" name="q" autocomplete="off" title="Search" value="" aria-label="Search" type="text">

NOTE: The above HTML is very liable to change however the input node has had an attribute name = q for sometime so we can mostly rely on this.

Search by name.

To find this element in the DOM a number of methods can be used. We can search by the name.

remDr$navigate("http://www.google.com/ncr")
webElem <- remDr$findElement(using = 'name', value = "q")

> webElem$getElementAttribute("name")
[[1]]
[1] "q"

> webElem$getElementAttribute("class")
[[1]]
[1] "gsfi lst-d-f"

> webElem$getElementAttribute("id")
[[1]]
[1] "lst-ib"

Search by id

In HTML the id of a DOM element should be unique so this is usually a good locator to use. As noted above the google id of the query box may change (the one we see is “lst-ib” so we use that). You may see an alternative “id”.

remDr$navigate("http://www.google.com/ncr")
webElem <- remDr$findElement(using = 'id', value = "lst-ib")

Highlight an element

An element that is visible in the DOM can usually be highlighted. Using our webElem which is an object of class "webElement" we can use the associated highlight method to visually indicate to us we have the correct element. Try it:

webElem$highlightElement()

You should see the query box flashing black and yellow to indicate visually the DOM element you have selected.

Search by class.

We can also search by class name.

remDr$navigate("http://www.google.com/ncr")
webElem <- remDr$findElement(using = 'class', "gsfi")

> webElem$getElementAttribute("class")
[[1]]
[1] "gsfi lst-d-f"

> webElem$getElementAttribute("type")
[[1]]
[1] "text"

NOTE the clas is listed as “gsfi lst-d-f” and we searched using “gsfi”? This is an example of a compound class. The class name selector can only be used for elements with a single class (“gsfi lst-d-f” indicates two classes “gsfi” and “lst-d-f”). For more complicated select queries we therefore use CSS or xpath instead.

Search using css-selectors

To replicate our name search using css selectors we could use

webElem <- remDr$findElement(using = 'css', "input[name='q']")

# OR

webElem2 <- remDr$findElement(using = 'css', "[name='q']")

We can see we get the same element (using the compareElements method of the "webElement" class):

> webElem$compareElements(webElem2)
[[1]]
[1] TRUE

and to search on id using css-selectors (again not the id you see maybe different)

webElem <- remDr$findElement(using = 'css', "input#lst-ib")
> webElem$getElementAttribute("name")
[[1]]
[1] "q"

and class

webElem <- remDr$findElement('css', "[class = 'gsfi lst-d-f']")

NOTE no issue with compound class names with CSS

A good example of searching using css-selectors is given here.

Search using xpath

The final option is to search using xpath. Normally one would use xpath by default when searching or CSS. Both are the go-to options.

Xpath using id.

webElem <- remDr$findElement('xpath', "//input[@id = 'lst-ib']")

Xpath using class.

webElem <- remDr$findElement('xpath', "//input[@class = 'gsfi lst-d-f']")

NOTE with xpath we have no issues using a compound class name.

Sending events to elements.

To illustrate how to interact with elements we will again use the http://www.google.com/ncr as an example.

Sending text to elements

Suppose we would like to search for R cran on google. We would need to find the element for the query box and send the appropriate text to it. We can do this using the sendKeysToElement method for the webElement class.

remDr$navigate("http://www.google.com/ncr")
webElem <- remDr$findElement(using = "css", "[name = 'q']")
webElem$sendKeysToElement(list("R Cran"))

Sending key presses to elements

We should see that the text R Cran has now been entered into the query box. How do we press enter. We can simply send the enter key to query box. The enter key would be denoted as "\uE007"(its UTF-8 code) . So we could use:

remDr$navigate("http://www.google.com/ncr")
webElem <- remDr$findElement(using = "css", "[name = 'q']")
webElem$sendKeysToElement(list("R Cran", "\uE007"))

It is not very easy to remember UTF-8 codes for appropriate keys so a mapping has been provided in RSelenium. `?selkeys’ will bring up a help page explaining the mapping. The UTF-8 codes have been mapped to easy to remember names.

To use selkeys we would send the following

remDr$navigate("http://www.google.com/ncr")
webElem <- remDr$findElement(using = "css", "[name = 'q']")
webElem$sendKeysToElement(list("R Cran", key = "enter"))

Typing selKeys into the console will bring up the list of mappings.

Sending mouse events to elements

For this example we will go back to the google frontpage and search for R Cran then we will click the link for the The Comprehensive R Archive Network.

remDr$navigate("http://www.google.com/ncr")
webElem <- remDr$findElement(using = "css", "[name = 'q']")
webElem$sendKeysToElement(list("R Cran", key = "enter"))

The header for each link is contained in a <h3 class = "r"> tag. We will access the h3 headers first. It will be succinct to find these elements using css selectors.

webElems <- remDr$findElements(using = 'css selector', "h3.r")
resHeaders <- unlist(lapply(webElems, function(x){x$getElementText()}))
> resHeaders
 [1] "The Comprehensive R Archive Network"                                   
 [2] "Download R-3.3.2 for Windows. The R-project for statistical ... - CRAN"
 [3] "About Microsoft R Open: The Enhanced R Distribution . MRAN"            
 [4] "R (programming language) - Wikipedia"                                  
 [5] "R-Cran - StatLib - Carnegie Mellon University"                         
 [6] "Submitting your first package to CRAN, my experience | R-bloggers"     
 [7] "Debian -- Package Search Results -- r-cran"                            
 [8] "It's crantastic!"                                                      
 [9] "METACRAN"                                                              
[10] "CRAN - Package PopGenReport"   

NOTE this is how the headers were presented at time of writing. Class names etc. are liable to change. We can see that the first link is the one we want but in case googles search results change we refer to it as

webElem <- webElems[[which(resHeaders == "The Comprehensive R Archive Network")]]

How do we click the link. We can use the clickElement method:

webElem$clickElement()

> remDr$getCurrentUrl()
[[1]]
[1] "https://cran.r-project.org/"

> remDr$getTitle()
[[1]]
[1] "The Comprehensive R Archive Network"

Injecting JavaScript

Sometimes it is necessary to interact with the current url using JavaScript. This maybe necessary to call bespoke methods or to have more control over the page for example by adding the JQuery library to the page if it is missing. Selenium has two methods we can use to execute JavaScript namely executeScript and executeAsyncScript from the remoteDriver class. We return to the google front page to investigate these methods.

Injecting JavaScript synchronously

Returning to the google homepage we can find the element for the google image. The image has id = "hplogo" and we can use this in an xpath or search by id etc to select the element. In this case we use css selectors:

remDr$navigate("http://www.google.com/ncr")
webElem <- remDr$findElement("css", "img#hplogo")

Is the image visible? Clearly it is but we can check using javascript.

> script <- "return document.getElementById('hplogo').hidden;"
> remDr$executeScript(script, args = list())
[[1]]
[1] FALSE

Great so the image is not hidden indicated by the FALSE. We can hide it executing some simple JavaScript.

> script <- "document.getElementById('hplogo').hidden = true; 
             return document.getElementById('hplogo').hidden;"
> remDr$executeScript(script, args = list())
[[1]]
[1] TRUE

So now the image is hidden. We used an element here given by id = "hplogo". We had to use the JavaScript function getElementById to access it. It would be nicer if we could have used webElem which we had specified earlier. If we pass a webElement object as an argument to either executeScript or executeAsyncScript RSelenium will pass it in an appropriate fashion.

> script <-"arguments[0].hidden = false; return arguments[0].hidden;"
> remDr$executeScript(script, args = list(webElem))
[[1]]
[1] FALSE

Notive how we passed the web element to the method executeScript. The script argument defines the script to execute in the form of a function body. The value returned by that function will be returned to the client. The function will be invoked with the provided args. If the function returns an element then this will be returned as an object of class webElement:

script <- "return document.getElementsByName('q');"
test <- remDr$executeScript(script, args = list())

> test[[1]]
[1] "remoteDriver fields"
$remoteServerAddr
[1] "localhost"

$port
[1] 4445

$browserName
[1] "firefox"

$version
[1] ""

$platform
[1] "ANY"

$javascript
[1] TRUE

$nativeEvents
[1] TRUE

$extraCapabilities
list()

[1] "webElement fields"
$elementId
[1] "21"

> class(test[[1]])
[1] "webElement"
attr(,"package")
[1] "RSelenium"

Try to highlight the element as before:

test[[1]]$highlightElement()

Injecting JavaScript asynchronously

I will briefly touch on asynch versus sync calls here. We need to set an appropriate asynchronous timeout firstly (that is longer than the async operation we are likely to carryout but it will ensure we will eventually error out in case of an issue)

remDr$navigate("http://www.google.com/ncr")
remDr$setAsyncScriptTimeout(10000)

Observe:

webElem <- remDr$findElement("css", "img#hplogo")
script <- "
cb = arguments[arguments.length -1];
webElem = arguments[0];
setTimeout(function(){webElem.hidden = true; cb('DONE');},5000);"
remDr$executeAsyncScript(script, args = list(webElem))

versus

remDr$navigate("http://www.google.com/ncr")
webElem <- remDr$findElement("css", "img#hplogo")
script <- "
webElem = arguments[0];
setTimeout(function(){webElem.hidden = true;},5000);
return 'DONE';
"
remDr$executeScript(script, args = list(webElem))

The async version waits until the callback (defined as the last argument arguments[arguments.length -1] as JavaScript is zero-indexed) is called whereas the sync version returns straight away. In both cases the google logo disappears after five seconds.

Frames and Windows.

In the context of a web browser, a frame is a part of a web page or browser window which displays content independent of its container, with the ability to load content independently.

Frames in Selenium

We will demonstrate interacting with frames by way of example. The The Comprehensive R Archive Network conveniently contains frames so we shall use RSelenium to interact with it. Assume we have a remoteDriver opened.

remDr$navigate("https://CRAN.r-project.org/")

> XML::htmlParse(remDr$getPageSource()[[1]])
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<title>The Comprehensive R Archive Network</title>
<meta content="text/html; charset=utf-8" http-equiv="content-type">
<link type="image/x-icon" href="favicon.ico" rel="icon">
<link type="image/x-icon" href="favicon.ico" rel="shortcut icon">
<link href="R.css" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet">
</head>
<frameset style="border: none;" cols="1*, 4*">
<frameset rows="120, 1*">
<frame frameborder="0" name="logo" src="logo.html">
<frame frameborder="0" name="contents" src="navbar.html">
</frameset>
<frame frameborder="0" name="banner" src="banner.shtml">
<noframes>
&lt;h1&gt;The Comprehensive R Archive Network&lt;/h1&gt;

Your browser seems not to support frames,
here is the &lt;A href="navbar.html"&gt;contents page&lt;/A&gt; of CRAN.
</noframes>
</frameset>
</html>

We can see the content is contained in three frames and we dont appear to have access to the content within a frame. But in the browser we see all the content:

remDr$maxWindowSize()
remDr$screenshot(display = TRUE)
RProject front page

To access the content we have to switch to a frame using the switchToFrame method of the remoteDriver class.

webElems <- remDr$findElements(using = "tag name", "frame")
# webElems <- remDr$findElements(value = "//frame") # using xpath
# webElems <- remDr$findElements("css", value = "frame") # using css

> sapply(webElems, function(x){x$getElementAttribute("src")})
[[1]]
[1] "https://cran.r-project.org/logo.html"

[[2]]
[1] "https://cran.r-project.org/navbar.html"

[[3]]
[1] "https://cran.r-project.org/banner.shtml"


remDr$switchToFrame(webElems[[2]])  

> XML::htmlParse(remDr$getPageSource()[[1]])
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<title>R Contents</title>
<meta content="text/html; charset=utf-8" http-equiv="content-type">
<link href="R.css" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet">
</head>
<body>

<em class="navigation">CRAN</em><br><a target="banner" href="mirrors.html">Mirrors</a><br><a target="banner" href="//www.R-project.org/news.html">What's new?</a><br><a target="banner" href="web/views/">Task Views</a><br><a target="banner" href="search.html">Search</a><br><!--<a href="pkg_submit.html" target="_top">Submit</a><BR>--><p>
<em class="navigation">About R</em><br><a target="_top" href="//www.R-project.org/">R Homepage</a><br><a target="_top" href="http://journal.R-project.org/">The R Journal</a>

</p>
<p>
<em class="navigation">Software</em><br><a target="banner" href="sources.html">R Sources</a><br><a target="banner" href="bin/">R Binaries</a><br><a target="banner" href="web/packages/">Packages</a><br><a target="banner" href="other-software.html">Other</a>

</p>
<p>
<em class="navigation">Documentation</em><br><a target="banner" href="manuals.html">Manuals</a><br><a target="banner" href="faqs.html">FAQs</a><br><a target="banner" href="other-docs.html">Contributed</a><br></p>
</body>
</html>
 

Now we see the source code of the navigation sidePanel. Notice how we used a webElement in the method switchToFrame. To further demonstrate we are now “in” this frame lets get all the href attributes:

webElems <- remDr$findElements("css", "[href]")
sapply(webElems, function(x){x$getElementAttribute("href")})

> unlist(sapply(webElems, function(x){x$getElementAttribute("href")}))
[1] "https://cran.r-project.org/R.css"              
 [2] "https://cran.r-project.org/mirrors.html"       
 [3] "https://www.r-project.org/news.html"           
 [4] "https://cran.r-project.org/web/views/"         
 [5] "https://cran.r-project.org/search.html"        
 [6] "https://www.r-project.org/"                    
 [7] "http://journal.r-project.org/"                 
 [8] "https://cran.r-project.org/sources.html"       
 [9] "https://cran.r-project.org/bin/"               
[10] "https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/"      
[11] "https://cran.r-project.org/other-software.html"
[12] "https://cran.r-project.org/manuals.html"       
[13] "https://cran.r-project.org/faqs.html"          
[14] "https://cran.r-project.org/other-docs.html"    

Notice if we pass a NULL value to the method switchToFrame we move back to the default view.

remDr$switchToFrame(NULL)

> XML::htmlParse(remDr$getPageSource()[[1]])
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<title>The Comprehensive R Archive Network</title>
<meta content="text/html; charset=utf-8" http-equiv="content-type">
<link type="image/x-icon" href="favicon.ico" rel="icon">
<link type="image/x-icon" href="favicon.ico" rel="shortcut icon">
<link href="R.css" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet">
</head>
<frameset style="border: none;" cols="1*, 4*">
<frameset rows="120, 1*">
<frame frameborder="0" name="logo" src="logo.html">
<frame frameborder="0" name="contents" src="navbar.html">
</frameset>
<frame frameborder="0" name="banner" src="banner.shtml">
<noframes>
&lt;h1&gt;The Comprehensive R Archive Network&lt;/h1&gt;

Your browser seems not to support frames,
here is the &lt;A href="navbar.html"&gt;contents page&lt;/A&gt; of CRAN.
</noframes>
</frameset>
<body><canvas id="fxdriver-screenshot-canvas" style="display: none;" width="1360" height="559"></canvas></body>
</html>

Finally we can switch to the main panel using a name

remDr$switchToFrame("banner")

> XML::htmlParse(remDr$getPageSource()[[1]])
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML//EN">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<title>The Comprehensive R Archive Network</title>
<link href="R.css" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet">
</head>
<body>

<h1>The Comprehensive R Archive Network</h1>

<div align="center">
<table border="1" width="80%"><tbody>
<tr>
<td>
<h3>Download and Install R</h3>
      Precompiled binary distributions of the base system and
      contributed packages, <strong>Windows and
      Mac</strong> users most likely want one of these versions of R:
    <ul>
<li><a href="bin/linux/">Download R for Linux</a></li>
      <li>
<a href="bin/macosx/">Download R for (Mac) OS X</a>
      </li>
<li><a href="bin/windows/">Download R for Windows</a></li>
    </ul>
    R is part of many Linux distributions, you should check with your Linux package management system in addition to the link above.
    </td>
  </tr>
<tr>
<td>
................
................
................
<h3>Questions About R</h3>
      <ul><li>
      If you have questions about R like how to download and install
      the software, or what the license terms are,
      please read our <a href="faqs.html">answers to frequently asked
      questions</a> before you send an email.
    </li></ul>
</td>
  </tr>
</tbody></table>
</div>

<h2>What are R and CRAN?</h2>

<p> R is GNU, a freely available language and environment for
statistical computing and graphics which provides a wide variety of
statistical and graphical techniques: linear and nonlinear modelling,
statistical tests, time series analysis, classification, clustering,
etc. Please consult the <a target="_top" href="https://www.R-project.org/">R project homepage</a> for further information.
</p>

<p> CRAN is a network of ftp and web servers around the world that
store identical, up-to-date, versions of code and documentation for
R. Please use the CRAN <a href="mirrors.html">mirror</a> nearest to you to minimize network
load.
</p>

<h2 id="submitting">Submitting to CRAN </h2>

<p>
To submit a package to CRAN,
check that your submission meets the
<a href="https://CRAN.R-project.org/web/packages/policies.html">CRAN
  Repository Policy</a> and then use the
<a href="https://xmpalantir.wu.ac.at/cransubmit/">web form</a>.
</p>

<p>
If this fails, upload to
<a target="_blank" href="ftp://CRAN.R-project.org/incoming/">ftp://CRAN.R-project.org/incoming/</a>
and send an email to
<a href="mailto:CRAN@R-project.org">CRAN@R-project.org</a> following the policy.
Please do not attach submissions to emails, because this will clutter up
the mailboxes of half a dozen people.
</p>

<p>
Note that we generally do not accept submissions of precompiled
binaries due to security reasons. All binary distribution listed above
are compiled by selected maintainers, who are in charge for all
binaries of their platform, respectively.
</p>

<p>
</p>
<hr>
<!--#if expr="$CRAN_HOST" --><!--#echo  encoding="none" var="CRAN_HOST"--><br><!--#endif -->
</body>
</html>

Windows in Selenium

The easiest way to illustrate Windows in RSelenium is again by way of example. We will use the “CRAN” website. First we select the download R element in the main frame.

remDr$navigate("https://cran.r-project.org/")
remDr$switchToFrame("banner")
webElems <- remDr$findElements("partial link text", "Download R")

sapply(webElems, function(x) x$getElementText())
[[1]]
[1] "Download R for Linux"

[[2]]
[1] "Download R for (Mac) OS X"

[[3]]
[1] "Download R for Windows"

We now send a selection of key presses to the first element to open the link it points to in a new window. If you did it manually you would move the mouse to the element right click on the link press the down arrow key twice then press enter. We will do the same

loc <- webElems[[1]]$getElementLocation()

> loc[c('x','y')]
$x
[1] 158

$y
[1] 132

remDr$mouseMoveToLocation(webElement = webElems[[1]]) # move mouse to the element we selected
remDr$click(2) # 2 indicates click the right mouse button
remDr$sendKeysToActiveElement(
  list(key = 'down_arrow', key = 'down_arrow', key = 'enter')
)

Notice now that a new windows has opened on the remote browser.

> remDr$getCurrentWindowHandle()
[[1]]
[1] "{573d17e5-b95a-41b9-a65f-04092b6a804b}"

> remDr$getWindowHandles()
[[1]]
[1] "{4896393a-c215-4976-b4ca-030d6b75b67d}"

[[2]]
[1] "{69c00f18-d3a7-44d7-a236-c6b5e6c264ff}"

> remDr$getTitle()
[[1]]
[1] "The Comprehensive R Archive Network"

> currWin <- remDr$getCurrentWindowHandle()
> allWins <- unlist(remDr$getWindowHandles())
> otherWindow <- allWins[!allWins %in% currWin[[1]]]
> remDr$switchToWindow(otherWindow)
> remDr$getTitle()
[[1]]
[1] "Index of /bin/linux"

So using the code above one can observe how to switch between different windows on the remote browser.

Appendix

Server functions

In previous versions of RSelenium there were two functions checkForServer and startServer which were used to download and start a Selenium binary. These functions are Deprecated/Defunct as users had issue with using them cross-platform. They are still in the RSelenium package and can be accessed in the serverUtils directory file.path(find.package("RSelenium"), "example/serverUtils")

> file.path(find.package("RSelenium"), "example/serverUtils")
[1] "/home/john/R/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu-library/3.3/RSelenium/example/serverUtils"

They may work for you depending on your platform and setup but are not supported.